On september 11th, 2001, al qaeda carried out terrorist attacks in the united states. History of afghanistan timeline timetoast timelines. Pakistan and afghanistan share an immense border stretching 1510 miles 2430 km along the southern and eastern edges of afghanistan. The earliest muslim reference to the afghans probably dates to 982, but tribes related to the modern afghans have lived in the region for many generations. Although no excavations have been made and no archaeological evidence exists as on date, we strongly believe that the indus people were familiar with this region and might have established some settlements there. Over the centuries, waves of migrating peoples passed through the region described by historian arnold toynbee as a. Ze digs deep into the history of the graveyard of empires to offer a condensed timeline of afghanistan from genghis khan to 911 ze digs deep into the history of the graveyard of empires to offer a condensed timeline of afghanistan from genghis khan to 911 time. Afghanistan was settled over 9,000 years ago and was closely connected with its northern, eastern, and western neighbors.
Afghanistan s borders now constitute, or can soon develop into, a viable, uni. In order to understand the present situation and future challenges of education in afghanistan one must study its past history in educational development. Time line of afghanistan 19191996 marxists internet archive. Afghanistan s history, internal political development, foreign relations, and very existence as an independent state have largely been determined by its geographic location at the crossroads of central, west, and south asia. It is located at the crossroads of middle east, indian subcontinent and central asia. Fighting ensues between the soviets and various opposition groups. A timeline of the us military presence in afghanistan. Those include kunduz, kandahar, heart, jalalabad and mazaresharif. Afghanistan history, map, flag, capital, population. Very occasionally, as in the time of mahmud of ghazni, it has existed as a kingdom approximating more closely to the modern borders of aghanistan. Sometimes referred to as the soviets version of the vietnam war, the soviet war in afghanistan ended up being a losing battle for the soviet union, and in many ways, accelerated the dissolution of communism in the east. This is a timeline of afghan history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and.
Variations of the word afghan may be as old as a 3rdcenturyce sasanian reference to abgan. The history of afghanistan as a state began in 1747 with its establishment by ahmad shah. An estimated 60,00070,000 were killed in the fighting and about 40,000 maratha prisoners massacred afterwards. The country was first invaded by asians about 1500 b. Despite its mountainous terrain and fiercely independent inhabitants, the country has been invaded time after time throughout its history. During the nearly 18 years since the united states went to war in afghanistan, the number of u. Al qaeda, a terrorist organization from afghanistan led by osama bin laden, sent 19 hijackers to crash planes into both world trade center towers in new york city, the pentagon, and the white house 1. The land has changed hands over the centuries as new empires have risen up and taken control. Amanullah attempts to modernize afghanistan, intro.
Understanding war in afghanistan is an excellent book for journeyman students of afghanistan. The taliban, under the leadership of mullah muhammad omar, seized control of kabul and spread into afghanistan and formed a government, ruling as the islamic emirate of afghanistan from september 1996 until december 2001, with kandahar as its capital. History, general history, history of individual places publisher macmillan and company limited. Oct 18, 2019 afghanistan has the misfortune of sitting in a strategic position at the crossroads of central asia, the indian subcontinent, and the middle east. This kind of modernist chronology and the use of the label pathan are out place in afghanistan. Since then, many empires have risen from afghanistan, including the grecobactrians, kushans, hephthalites, saffarids, samanids, ghaznavids, ghurids, khaljis, timurids, mughals, hotakis and durranis. Afghanistan timeline of events afghan culture and its. A historical overview of pakistan from 1947 to 2018 that examines the development of the country in terms of political, socioeconomic, administrative, and foreign policy decisionstrends. Facts about afghanistan history will make you surprised.
That year, the taliban declared afghanistan an islamic emirate, with. Chronologies, biographies, documents such as past constitutions, and articles dealing with various stages of afghan history. With a history dating back to the middle paleolithic era, afghanistan has since then been home to multiple cultures, traditions, ethnicity and military campaigns. Starting from the war of state construction and establishing a centralized authority between 18801901. The region of afghanistan has for much of history been part of the persian empire. Based on archaeological evidence, urban civilization began in the region between 3000 and 2000 bc. A timeline of american involvement in afghanistan from 20012017.
However, due to bad project management and preparation, the effects of these improvements werent as widespread and helpful as they could have been. Play video witnesses describe deadly suicide attack on kabul education centre video. Talking about the landscape, afghanistan sits on the. In some ways, the country just does not make sense. The political instability was not acceptable to the soviets and they wanted to ensure that afghanistan, that bordered its central asian. After the formation of the modern nationstate between 18801929, afghanistan has witnessed at least seven major conflicts. Afghanistan timeline presoviet intervention 18381978 18381842 british forces invade and install shah shuja durrani on the throne. History of afghanistan including an afghan nation, dost mohammed, two angloafghan wars, abdurrahman khan, zahir shar and daud khan, reform and reaction, soviet occupation, civil war, the taliban, war against alqaeda, a new start. The book concludes with a discussion of two topics of special interestpopular culture and the role of womenand a survey of basic facts on the country. Afghanistan, a landlocked country between south and central asia, is amongst the largest and populous countries of the world. A brief history of afghanistan new internationalist.
Afghanistan has over a hundred year long history in journalism but the route of journalism is still unstable and unclear. Mar 02, 2020 afghanistan, landlocked multiethnic country located in the heart of southcentral asia. Communism takes hold in china and beyond july 1, 1921. Due to its location, afghanistan has been a hub of diverse cultures. A chronology of key events in the history of afghanistan, from the mid1800s to the present day. Humans have been living in afghanistan for over 50,000 years and it is one of the oldest historical and archaeological sites on earth. Pakistan and afghanistan institute for the study of war. Infoplease has everything you need to know about afghanistan. British triumph in subsequent fighting, but it is a pyrrhic victory. The taliban dominates large swaths of afghanistan and a large part of pakistans federally administered tribal areas, semiautonomous tribal lands along the afghanpakistan border that serve as training grounds for terrorists. This country has been invaded many times due to the strategic position. On this date in history in 1979, the soviet union orders troops into afghanistan. You can help by expanding it with reliably sourced entries. The soviet army was invited in by a procommunist government that was trying to stabilize the situation in the country.
With the arrival of first printing press lithography printing to afghanistan from india in 1873, publications started in the country. Key developments of a 16year conflict, from the 2001 us invasion after 911 to trumps latest strategy reveal. Many of its dozens of ethnic groups have long histories of con. Not only does it give them a summary of afghanistan s colorful geography and history, but it also presents an uptodate picture of where the war is heading and an informed discussion of the range of choice for afghanistan and its allies. Starting with the saur revolution military coup, an almost continuous series of armed conflicts has dominated and afflicted afghanistan.
From time to time it has been linked with the northern plains of india, as under the kushan dynasty of the 2nd century ad. See also the list of leaders of afghanistan and the list of years in afghanistan. Us troops have been fighting in afghanistan since 2001, making it the longest war in american. In the late 1970s, the soviet union deployed tens of thousands of troops in support of procommunist. Military history of australia during the war in afghanistan. The sovietafghan war began in 1979 and ended in 1989.
For help with downloading a wikipedia page as a pdf, see help. Sovietafghanistan war overview history of war in the. In 1933, nader is assassinated, and his son, shah mohammad zahir takes control. Interior of the palace of shauh shujah ool moolk, late king of cabul. He founded the city of kandahar which was initially named alexandria. Russia agrees that britain should have controlling influence in afghanistan and tibet, and the two powers end their rivalry in iran by dividing that land into two zones of influence. Male and female roles are strictly delineated and traditional religious customs are very much adhered to. After several power struggles, shah mohammad nader comes to power in 1929, but would rule for only four years, setting the tone of a return to orthodox islam. A major part of the british occupation forces are later destroyed near gandamak during retreat toward jalalabad. An introduction to new afghan literature nonfiction by anders widmark in a discussion at the house of culture in stockholm just over a week ago, the afghan writer atiq rahimi, having summarized the last three decades of afghan history, concluded laconically that the present state was. Afghanistan has the misfortune of sitting in a strategic position at the crossroads of central asia, the indian subcontinent, and the middle east. Sovietafghanistan war timeline history of war in the.
As the future of afghanistan hangs in the balance, we look back on the countrys past and ask where its future lies. Bush called for a global war on terror, launching an ongoing effort to stop terrorists before they act. The ussr agreed to fund afghanistan with money for oil development, trade, transport, irrigation, factories and highway construction. A chronology of afghanistans history from 50,000 bce to today. In one of the largest battles of the century, the mostly muslim afghani durrani empire defeats the mostly hindu maratha empire in northern india. At the gateway between asia and europe, this land was conquered by darius i of babylonia circa 500 b. During the 1800s, the british tried to control afghanistan by invading the country from its neighboring base in india and installing puppet regimes, failing every time. Afghanistan would represent the us militarys first hybrid war challenge since being shaped by the rma and subsequent force transformation. The first historical documents date from the early part of the iranian achaemenian dynasty, which controlled the area from 550 bc until 331 bc. Last of a dynasty afghanistan s last monarch, zahir shah, came from a long line of pashtun rulers 1933 ascends throne aged 19, introduces reforms 1973. Afghanistan s culture can be traced as far back as 4000 bc with stunning prehistoric monuments standing to witness to its rich tribal history, many of which are still evident today outside of kabul.
While kabul has historically been the cosmopolitan center and will continue to lead the. Afghanistan war, international conflict beginning in 2001 that was triggered by the september 11 attacks. A treaty gives britain control of afghan foreign affairs. Taliban soldiers on the outskirts of kabul, afghanistan, 1999. In the first six months of the campaign, the soviets commit more than 80,000 personnel to occupy afghanistan.
In the aftermath of a suicide attack on a kabul education centre, which. The taliban insurgency remains resilient nearly two decades after u. Check out our country profile, full of essential information about afghanistan s geography, history, government, economy, population, culture, religion and languages. Resistance intensifies as multiple mujahideen groups, who are supported with money and arms from the us, pakistan, and saudi arabia, fight against soviet forces and their dra allies. This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. The taliban in afghanistan council on foreign relations. It is surrounded by large and powerful nations such as india, pakistan, and russia. Aug 31 with russias defeat by japan, the british see russia as less of a threat to their interests.
Inspired by the russian revolution, the communist party of china is formed. Noshaq is the highest peak in the hindu kush range and the highest. The land that is now afghanistan has a long history of domination by foreign conquerors and strife among internally warring factions. May 12, 2017 us troops have been fighting in afghanistan since 2001, making it the longest war in american history.
On november 2, 1982, a truck explodes in the salang tunnel in afghanistan, killing an estimated 3,000 people, mostly soviet soldiers traveling to kabul. In 1989, the last soviet troops leave afghanistan, but civil war continues. Pashtun peoples are the largest ethnic group in the south of the country, while tajiks and uzbeks are concentrated along the norther borders, and the hazara in the central highlands. Lying along important trade routes connecting southern and eastern asia to europe and the middle east, afghanistan has long been a prize sought by empire builders. Zahir shah becomes king and afghanistan remains a monarchy for the next four decades. Afghanistan, landlocked multiethnic country located in the heart of southcentral asia. The following is a short history as a place holder for a more detailed time line to come. The history of afghanistan cnn wedged between the middle east, south asia and central asia, afghanistan occupies a pivotal place in world geography and world history. Published as part of informa routledge europa world series. The president will set on the top position for five years. To read about the background to these events, see history of afghanistan.1492 306 1089 1476 632 885 1559 621 884 1457 1310 542 1082 567 269 622 866 1120 1069 630 1312 553 319 602 1042 1489 1416 589 64 425 1046